Russia’s military involvement in the Syrian arena has fueled debate among analysts, politicians and pundits etc. about the motives and strategic objectives of Russia that led the country to initiate military actions in Syrian Civil War. By its military intervention in Syria, Russia is focused on accomplishing a series of domestic and foreign policy interests. In the international arena, the country...

The current rivalry over disputed region Nagorno-Karabakh broke out on the eve of the collapse the Soviet Union. The conflict lasted several years, cost lives of more than 30,000 people from both sides while the territory was illegally occupied by Armenian forces who declared independence for the region. Although a ceasefire agreement was reached between the belligerent partiesin 1994, the conflict, not...

Ever since the Przino Agreement of July 2015, Macedonia’s upcoming parliamentary elections have been framed by the country’s two main political parties as the most important since independence in 1991. The incumbent Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity (DPMNE) is convinced that voters will see through the destructive strategy of the opposition party Macedonian Social Democratic Union...

After the brutal bomb attack on March of 13 in the heart of Ankara that killed more than 30 people, president Erdoğan blamed Kurdish militants and PKK/PYD linked organizations in violence against Turkey and vowed to bring terror to “its knees”. While the latest deadly terrorist attacks both in Ankara and Istanbul raised questions about the Turkish government’s ability to protect its...

As Russian-Turkish relations become more strained in the aftermath of the Su-24 incident, both powers seek to demonstrate their muscles to each other. Given that more actors will be involved in this rumble regardless of their will, each belligerent side tries to be more attractive and earn more allies. The position of Azerbaijan, a tiny nation with huge oil and gas reserves sandwiched between Russia and...

Vladimir Putin entered Syria in an attempt to bolster his domestic popularity and demonstrate Russia's military adequacy- while also containing its rivals in the Middle East.   The Russian military operation in Syria launched at the end of September 2015 has so far raised a variety of opinions regarding the true reasons behind it, as well as what consequences it may bear for Russia. Since the...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series   “It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.”  Henry Kissinger     In December 1979, the Soviet Union launched a military intervention in Afghanistan, having responded to the calls from Taraki government. The Soviet leaders, whose main goal was to protect the loyal...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series    Putin was, as usual, ill-mannered and rude… At his annual press conference in December 2015, Vladimir Putin used boorish language when referring to Turkish government. Asked about a third-party involvement in the current Russian-Turkish relations deteriorated by the shootdown of Russian Su-24, Putin remarked “…if someone in the...

The Minsk Group, a special body of the Organization for Security and Co‑operation in Europe, established in 1992 in order to help the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan, has been constantly criticized during the recent years. No breakthrough has been achieved over the resolution of the long-lasting conflict that emerged in 1988 over Armenia’s territorial claims...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series    Iosif Kobzon's name was once amongst the most popular singers in the former Soviet Union. The veteran performer, who is known as the “Russian Sinatra” in the West and had his name entered into the Book of Records of Russia as the most decorated artist in the country's history during the 20th century, had maintained a positive reputation...

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