Over the last decades, the global terror acts have largely reshaped the political and legal sphere regarding a parochial scope of legality on the use of force against terror acts. In a legal term, the prohibition on the use or threat of force has been widely accepted as a peremptory norm of jus cogens in a customary rule to the extent of the exceptions internationally accepted as an “inherent...

In an attempt to explain the revolutionary and post-revolutionary processes in the Middle East, political analysts tend to lean either on structural, or on agential points of view. Both structuralist and agentialist theories enable to distinguish some revolutionary patterns common for Egypt and Tunisia, and overall in the Arabic world. However, while understanding the different paths these countries have...

In recent years contemporary international relations have been marked by a relatively new political phenomenon – the "language of sanctions”, which manifests itself in international isolation and economic pressure on different states. It seems too simple to explain the increased interest of the world community. Today, in the era of globalization, when there is a gradual transformation of...

 “Safety and certainty in oil lie in variety and variety alone”[1] Winston Churchill   A famous doctrine of classical geopolitics goes: “Who controls Eurasia, (Heartland) eventually, he will be able to run the world”. Subsequently, however, changing circumstances have been shaping and reorganizing foreign policies and political interests of states. Hence, a new dogma has...

Diplomacy and International Affairs—as the term implies—have revolved largely around the interactions between states, and soft power, along with forceful measures, has been the cornerstone of conducting that connectedness. However, it is important to stress that diplomacy and international affairs have always surpassed states. Hedley Bull oncedefined "diplomacy” as "the conduct of...

  Boko Haram in the West Africa Boko Haram promotes a version of Islam which makes it "haram", or forbidden, for Muslims to take part in any political or social activity associated with Western society. This includes voting in elections, wearing shirts and trousers or receiving a secular education. Boko Haram regards the Nigerian state as being run by non-believers, even when the country had a Muslim...

"In a system of states, the use of force generally discriminates between peace and war. Yet, international politics often takes place in a gray region involving no-peace and no-war, wherein the threat of violence – more than its mere application – is the critical variable for and understanding of interstate relations and crises.”1 The unique character of this variable makes it both a...

  Cooperation platforms such as Istanbul Process, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework or International Contact Group on Afghanistan were viewed by international community as mechanisms for complementing military and security-related tasks and contributing to building stability and prosperity in Afghanistan ridden by recurrent violence for decades. Yet such platforms hitherto failed to produce...

  Preface The structure of this article talks about religious fundamentalism with Islam and Christianity cases. Before all we will need to know the definition of fundamentalism by itself which is a style of thought in which certain principles are recognized as essential ‘truths’ that have unchangeable and overriding authority, regardless of their content. Substantive fundamentalism...

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