“A new chapter in the history of international politics has begun, one in which the pursuit and control of energy resources would be the central dynamic of world affairs, and governments.” (Guay, 2014) (Michael T. Klare)   In the study of foreign policy there are variety of approaches, each explaining its essence, functions goals and objectives. Through its foreign policy, state pursues...

“Every age has its own kind of war, its own limiting conditions, and its own peculiar preconceptions” Carl von Clausewitz, On War, 1976, p. 240.   The issues related to ‘hybrid warfare’ have dominated the recent news feeds, political and military scholarship and particularly international security agenda worldwide.  According to the Uppsala conflict data set, there were...

Introduction The Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), as a term, gained popularity among scholars and military circles in the early 1990s, when the Gulf war exposed a significant shift in the role of technological advancements in the modern warfare. Being characterized by innovations like all-weather precision weapons, the advent of stealth, the rise of unmanned systems, tactical and operational...

Having possessed some of the world’s largest natural gas reserves, Turkmenistan is also one of few producer countries – and the only former Soviet republic – that is able to export more than half of its gas production, due to its small population (six times smaller than Uzbekistan’s, for instance) and relatively low level of industrialization. Its position in global energy market...

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