The (un)expected turning point occurred in the energy market when one of the world’s biggest crude oil exporters – Saudi Arabia declared that it will cut dependence on oil revenue by 2020. The new ambitious strategic concept intends to lay out a new economic trajectory amid the deep crisis in the oil market. The chief mastermind behind this ambitious plan is Minister of defence of the Kingdom...

Russia’s military involvement in the Syrian arena has fueled debate among analysts, politicians and pundits etc. about the motives and strategic objectives of Russia that led the country to initiate military actions in Syrian Civil War. By its military intervention in Syria, Russia is focused on accomplishing a series of domestic and foreign policy interests. In the international arena, the country...

  Preface The structure of this article talks about religious fundamentalism with Islam and Christianity cases. Before all we will need to know the definition of fundamentalism by itself which is a style of thought in which certain principles are recognized as essential ‘truths’ that have unchangeable and overriding authority, regardless of their content. Substantive fundamentalism...

After the brutal bomb attack on March of 13 in the heart of Ankara that killed more than 30 people, president Erdoğan blamed Kurdish militants and PKK/PYD linked organizations in violence against Turkey and vowed to bring terror to “its knees”. While the latest deadly terrorist attacks both in Ankara and Istanbul raised questions about the Turkish government’s ability to protect its...

As Russian-Turkish relations become more strained in the aftermath of the Su-24 incident, both powers seek to demonstrate their muscles to each other. Given that more actors will be involved in this rumble regardless of their will, each belligerent side tries to be more attractive and earn more allies. The position of Azerbaijan, a tiny nation with huge oil and gas reserves sandwiched between Russia and...

Vladimir Putin entered Syria in an attempt to bolster his domestic popularity and demonstrate Russia's military adequacy- while also containing its rivals in the Middle East.   The Russian military operation in Syria launched at the end of September 2015 has so far raised a variety of opinions regarding the true reasons behind it, as well as what consequences it may bear for Russia. Since the...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series   “It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.”  Henry Kissinger     In December 1979, the Soviet Union launched a military intervention in Afghanistan, having responded to the calls from Taraki government. The Soviet leaders, whose main goal was to protect the loyal...

  Look here upon this picture, and on this, The counterfeit presentment of two brothers. Hamlet   The downing of the Russian SU-24 bomber by the Turkish Air Forces on November 24 that marked a new era of global geopolitical struggle could also be considered a military fight in the Near Eastern theater between two countries, but a personal combat betwixt two similar personalities. Since coming to...

Early April of the current year, the news spread from Switzerland reported a long-awaited arrangement: Iran and six world powers that had negotiated for the past several years declared a deal, which would block Tehran from developing nuclear weapons in exchange for the lifting of Western sanctions. Despite some skeptical opinions, the most agreed it was a big diplomatic achievement and hoped for further...

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