As Russian-Turkish relations become more strained in the aftermath of the Su-24 incident, both powers seek to demonstrate their muscles to each other. Given that more actors will be involved in this rumble regardless of their will, each belligerent side tries to be more attractive and earn more allies. The position of Azerbaijan, a tiny nation with huge oil and gas reserves sandwiched between Russia and...

Vladimir Putin entered Syria in an attempt to bolster his domestic popularity and demonstrate Russia's military adequacy- while also containing its rivals in the Middle East.   The Russian military operation in Syria launched at the end of September 2015 has so far raised a variety of opinions regarding the true reasons behind it, as well as what consequences it may bear for Russia. Since the...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series   “It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.”  Henry Kissinger     In December 1979, the Soviet Union launched a military intervention in Afghanistan, having responded to the calls from Taraki government. The Soviet leaders, whose main goal was to protect the loyal...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series    Putin was, as usual, ill-mannered and rude… At his annual press conference in December 2015, Vladimir Putin used boorish language when referring to Turkish government. Asked about a third-party involvement in the current Russian-Turkish relations deteriorated by the shootdown of Russian Su-24, Putin remarked “…if someone in the...

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