Enlightenment in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries caused a great number of cultural and intellectual changes in Europe; therefore, it is proper to say that “it changed not only ideas, but also the process by which ideas are formulated.” (Hause & Maltby, 2004, p. 291) This significant movement affected almost every aspect of European life: politics, religion, science, literature...

The European Union is the world’s largest importer of energy resources. Formation of a common energy policy is one of the most important issues on the daily agenda of the Member States, probably because coal, gas and oil remain the dominant energy sources for the Union despite its efforts to develop renewable energy. Adoption of the second package of directives that called for opening of the gas and...

Introduction The EU membership referendum that was held in the UK on June 23, 2016, resulted with 51.9% of the population voting in favor of the withdrawal from the European Union. Taking into consideration the 43 years’ long membership of the U.K. in the EU, this event is bound to bring about certain consequences for all the remaining 27 Member-States as well as for countries outside the Union. In...

Europe is left again in a state of shock and distress when Germany was hit by a surprising attack leaving 9 people dead and many more wounded. The attack on the Olympia shopping centre in Munich, three days after another attack on board a  train executed  by an Afghan refugee and followed by an explosion in a small town of Ansbach, seems to be politically motivated violence rather than...