On April 23, the French voters will cast their ballots in the first round of what might turn out to be the most unpredictable and fateful presidential elections in the history of the Fifth Republic. The failure of the François Hollande presidency combined with the sluggish economy and deepening woes over the issues of identity and security have polarized the society and made the contest much more...

The recent diplomatic crisis occurring between Turkey and the Netherlands raises question about the reasons for the rapid escalation of a standoff between the two countries. The unexpected diplomatic incident followed by the mutual accusations and harsh criticisms happened between the countries preparing for the critical elections which could have brought unintended results for the both governments in...

Introduction The Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), as a term, gained popularity among scholars and military circles in the early 1990s, when the Gulf war exposed a significant shift in the role of technological advancements in the modern warfare. Being characterized by innovations like all-weather precision weapons, the advent of stealth, the rise of unmanned systems, tactical and operational...

Ongoing conflicts, poverty, violence and persecution forced people to leave their country in the Middle East, Afghanistan, Iraq, Northern Africa, and South Asia. Most of them seek to get asylum in the European Union while searching for better life away from their homeland. Logically, democratic and economically developed regions and countries are more attractable for the most of migrants, considering their...

Having possessed some of the world’s largest natural gas reserves, Turkmenistan is also one of few producer countries – and the only former Soviet republic – that is able to export more than half of its gas production, due to its small population (six times smaller than Uzbekistan’s, for instance) and relatively low level of industrialization. Its position in global energy market...

  Deputy Director of the Estonian School of Diplomacy, Dr. Vahur Made shares his opinion regarding the rising rightist movements in Europe, possible other exit scenarios in the European Union, American policy on Europe during Trump`s tenure, future of Western liberalism.   Interviewer: Elvin Abbasli       The Popular Front (France), the Alternative for Germany (AfD), the Sweden...

Dear readers!  The Politicon is proud to announce the Book Review contest.  You can send us your reviews of books on the subjects we touch upon at The Politicon, global and domestic politics, international relations and diplomacy, security and conflicts, global and political economy, international law.  We don’t have very strict requirements on your choice of books, though we expect...

Turkey energy interests in EU Turkey commands an obvious and unique geostrategic significance for the Euro-Atlantic community, and as an influential player located at the intersection of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, the Middle East, the Balkans, the Caucasus region, and GCS, is at the center of the Western attention. The country possesses the almost 75 million population with the majority of Muslims....

Enlightenment in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries caused a great number of cultural and intellectual changes in Europe; therefore, it is proper to say that “it changed not only ideas, but also the process by which ideas are formulated.” (Hause & Maltby, 2004, p. 291) This significant movement affected almost every aspect of European life: politics, religion, science, literature...

The European Union is the world’s largest importer of energy resources. Formation of a common energy policy is one of the most important issues on the daily agenda of the Member States, probably because coal, gas and oil remain the dominant energy sources for the Union despite its efforts to develop renewable energy. Adoption of the second package of directives that called for opening of the gas and...

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