Enlightenment in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries caused a great number of cultural and intellectual changes in Europe; therefore, it is proper to say that “it changed not only ideas, but also the process by which ideas are formulated.” (Hause & Maltby, 2004, p. 291) This significant movement affected almost every aspect of European life: politics, religion, science, literature...

  Preface The structure of this article talks about religious fundamentalism with Islam and Christianity cases. Before all we will need to know the definition of fundamentalism by itself which is a style of thought in which certain principles are recognized as essential ‘truths’ that have unchangeable and overriding authority, regardless of their content. Substantive fundamentalism...

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