Having possessed some of the world’s largest natural gas reserves, Turkmenistan is also one of few producer countries – and the only former Soviet republic – that is able to export more than half of its gas production, due to its small population (six times smaller than Uzbekistan’s, for instance) and relatively low level of industrialization. Its position in global energy market...

Pakistan is emerging as an important military player in the Gulf as it struggles to balance complex relations with regional rivals Saudi Arabia and Iran and diverging approaches by different branches of its government. Pakistan’s military engagement with the Gulf goes far beyond increased involvement in a Saudi-led, 41-nation military alliance that officially was established to counter terrorism, but...

Azerbaijan’s foreign policy towards Russia has been mostly shaped by the historical and geographical factors connecting the two countries. The long-term Russian rule and influence in Azerbaijan have led the latter to be dependent on Russia in terms of governance, as well as educational, technological, and scientific development. When it comes to geography, Azerbaijan shares a 284-km length land...

In his latest book political sociologist Hazem Kandil attempts to make significant contribution to the existing literature on regime change by constructing a model which he calls “the Power triangle”. With its help, he challenges the traditional perception that political regimes are uniform entities, which should be analysed as single actors. This model entails that there are three blocks of...