In July 1993, following the war over Nagorno-Karabagh, Turkey shut down its borders with Armenia as a gesture of sympathy for Azerbaijan. As a result of this disassociation, the Kars-Gyumri-Tbilisi railway—then the only link between Caucasus and Turkey—ceased its years-long operation. After closure of the Kars-Gyumri rail line, Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan launched considerations on how to...

On May 14-15, 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping hosted the leaders of 28 states and representatives from many other countries at the Belt and Road Forum in Beijing. Experts consider this event as an important milestone for China because Chinese investment projects in many countries are transforming from planning to development phase.  For several years now, security of main energy and trade routes...

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