In the last years relations between Ankara and Moscow have drastically changed and the impact of situations in Syria as well as internal political struggles in Turkey are intensely covered over the background of bilateral relations. Yet, developments in the Caucasus as an important strategic arena were still underreported and seemed to stay a subject of a close circle of regional experts.   Even...

Azerbaijan is a predominantly Muslim country. According to, The World Factbook 2015, 96.9 percent of the population is Muslims. Shia Muslims make approximately 85 percent while Sunni 15 percent of total Muslim population. The rest of the residents (around 3%) is made up of mostly Christians and Jews, as well as representatives of non-traditional sects (Krishnaism, etc.). Thus, the Shiites form the majority...

In July 1993, following the war over Nagorno-Karabagh, Turkey shut down its borders with Armenia as a gesture of sympathy for Azerbaijan. As a result of this disassociation, the Kars-Gyumri-Tbilisi railway—then the only link between Caucasus and Turkey—ceased its years-long operation. After closure of the Kars-Gyumri rail line, Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan launched considerations on how to...

People in Iraq's northern autonomous region of Kurdistan are voting in an independence referendum, amid rising tensions and international opposition on September 25, 2017. This referendum can produce a new state on the world map, in the most turbulent region of the planet. Heydar Mirza, expert in foreign policy and security studies, comments on the situation.    Interviewer: Elmira Hasanova...

The Republic of Turkey and the State of Israel have a number of conflicting interests in the Middle East. This article, however, will review their common interests in the region. Counterterrorism or fight against terrorism: The interest number one, of course, is the protection of security and stability in the region. Security and stability are part and parcel of the both countries’ interests. As we...

Background In 2014 a small incident occurred between Qatar and GCC countries related to funding and supporting terrorist organizations in the Middle East but later the dispute was solved peacefully. The similar incident sparked again on May 23, 2017 when the fake news was aired on several UAE- and Saudi-owned networks attributing hack false statements to the emir of Qatar. This led to a series of serious...

Turkey’s parliament is this week fast tracking the dispatch of up to 3,000 troops to Qatar, home to the country’s military base in the Middle East. Certain to stiffen Qatar’s resolve to resist Saudi and UAE-led pressure to force it to change policies, the Turkish move comes amid hints that the kingdom and its allies may seek to undermine the rule of Qatari emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al...

“A new chapter in the history of international politics has begun, one in which the pursuit and control of energy resources would be the central dynamic of world affairs, and governments.” (Guay, 2014) (Michael T. Klare)   In the study of foreign policy there are variety of approaches, each explaining its essence, functions goals and objectives. Through its foreign policy, state pursues...

The pursuit of developing indigenous defence-industrial capabilities often encounters with the need in sacrifices. As noted by Moravcsik, this involves an “autarky-efficiency dilemma”, in which relative autonomy can only be attained at the expense of production efficiency. (Moravcsik A., 1991) Governments tend to address this issue by adopting different strategies, which ultimately shape their...

The recent diplomatic crisis occurring between Turkey and the Netherlands raises question about the reasons for the rapid escalation of a standoff between the two countries. The unexpected diplomatic incident followed by the mutual accusations and harsh criticisms happened between the countries preparing for the critical elections which could have brought unintended results for the both governments in...

Book Reviews

Facebook page

Twitter page