The one – the only – way to win World War III is to prevent it.  Dwight Eisenhower In the very preface, Robert A. Divine explains why Dwight Eisenhower`s period is an interesting topic to study as he became an exception of a characteristic pattern for the twentieth-century American presidency: unlike other presidents of his century, Dwight Eisenhower had little experience at home but...

Carter Doctrine is a foreign policy initiative introduced by U.S. President Jimmy Carter on January 23, 1980 as a response to the Soviet Union’s intervention in Afghanistan. J. Carter declared that the U.S. would employ military force against any country that attempted to gain control of the Persian Gulf, thus warning away outside forces from the region.  The Carter administration recommended a...

As within the few years after the World War II the USSR firmly established its hegemony over the newly socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, the processes going on in Moscow necessarily echoed in all of them. Thus, when the new party elite headed by Nikita Khrushchev initiated a reversal of most of specifically Stalinist policies, Warsaw and Budapest, Sofia and Prague were supposed to proceed in...

Stalin's brutal campaign against the Bolshevik power elite, which took place during the so-called "Great Terror", reminds of the events in France during the time of Jacobin terror. But the differences are also huge. This column deals with "Great Terror" and its accompanying circumstances. Commemorative plaque with photos of victims of the Great Terror, who were shot at the NKVD shooting range in Butovo...

This year`s August 23, marks the 78th anniversary of the Pact signed in Moscow between German Foreign Minister Joachim Von Ribbentrop and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, with Stalin in attendance. The Pact had dramatic consequences for Central and Eastern Europe and some analysts perceive it as the real date on which the Second World War began. Others, such as Russian president Vladimir...

Several Belarusian newspapers have noted that August 9, 2017, is the 115th anniversary of the birth of Panteleimon Ponomarenko (1902-1984, a native of Krasnodar, Russia), the party leader of Belarus during the Stalinist repressions and war years. Ponomarenko has a mixed reputation but there seems to be a consensus that he was always not the hard-hearted stone-faced Stalinist of lore, but a man with the...

In the early days of the current year, the ambassadors of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to Germany collectively wrote a petition asking German media to stop referring to the above-mentioned nations as “former Soviet countries”. The issue had been prompted by the Soviet Legacy column on the German news portal Die Zeit.   The Facebook page of Latvia`s embassy in...

Fidel Castro, the Cuban revolutionary leader passed away on November 25, reopening debates about his political and economic heritage - his Cuba. The zeitgeist of the Cold War era revived with such discussions pitting social security of the communism against the political pluralism, affluence of capitalism. In this vast discourse, where are we Azerbaijanis? How do we accommodate our recent socialist past? ...

Despite its violent first half that experienced two world wars, the second part of the twentieth century was remarkably spared from witnessing a World War III. Even though that the major war did not break out, still there was a period of intense hostility between two super-powers, the United States and the Soviet Union. This period of hostility that has seen no actual warfare between two major powers has...

  Maksym Khylko, political expert from Ukraine talks about Ukraine`s view of political developments around Russia, as well as political intrigues in Ukraine.   Interviewer: Rusif Huseynov      Huseynov: Lately Russia`s image has been badly hit both economically and militarily: Oil prices see decline almost every day and Russian jet was downed by Turkey, a NATO member. What...

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