The latest Normandy Four meeting on May 11 in Berlin did not result in any major breakthroughs able to resolve the stalemate in Ukraine. Russia and Ukraine agreed to create demilitarized zones in separatist-held areas of eastern Ukraine, enhance information-sharing, and halt military exercises along the contact line, but these steps will not break the current deadlock in implementing the Minsk ceasefire...

The April shootouts in Nagorno-Karabakh that took dozens of lives from each side signaled to the world community that the conflict around the above-mentioned region is not frozen, as it was previously claimed.   *          *          *   Ethnic clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis living in Nagorno-Karabakh1, a mountainous province inside...

Whatever the end of the quagmire in the Middle East will be, it can be confidently claimed that the Kurdish problem is now looming larger than ever in the regional politics. In Syria the YPG, armed groups under the local Kurdish party PYD, are among the most solid and reliable forces fighting against radical jihadists; in Iraq the prospects of possible independence exert a steady impact on national...

On April 30, Baghdad was shaken by significant political turbulence, which for a short moment captured the attention of the largest international media outlets. The supporters of the prominent Shia cleric and politician – Muqtada al-Sadr stormed the Iraqi parliament building, broke into its offices and prevented several MPs of escaping the chaos, by pulling barbed wire across a road, leading to one...

Russia’s military involvement in the Syrian arena has fueled debate among analysts, politicians and pundits etc. about the motives and strategic objectives of Russia that led the country to initiate military actions in Syrian Civil War. By its military intervention in Syria, Russia is focused on accomplishing a series of domestic and foreign policy interests. In the international arena, the country...

  Preface The structure of this article talks about religious fundamentalism with Islam and Christianity cases. Before all we will need to know the definition of fundamentalism by itself which is a style of thought in which certain principles are recognized as essential ‘truths’ that have unchangeable and overriding authority, regardless of their content. Substantive fundamentalism...

The current rivalry over disputed region Nagorno-Karabakh broke out on the eve of the collapse the Soviet Union. The conflict lasted several years, cost lives of more than 30,000 people from both sides while the territory was illegally occupied by Armenian forces who declared independence for the region. Although a ceasefire agreement was reached between the belligerent partiesin 1994, the conflict, not...

After the brutal bomb attack on March of 13 in the heart of Ankara that killed more than 30 people, president Erdoğan blamed Kurdish militants and PKK/PYD linked organizations in violence against Turkey and vowed to bring terror to “its knees”. While the latest deadly terrorist attacks both in Ankara and Istanbul raised questions about the Turkish government’s ability to protect its...

Vladimir Putin entered Syria in an attempt to bolster his domestic popularity and demonstrate Russia's military adequacy- while also containing its rivals in the Middle East.   The Russian military operation in Syria launched at the end of September 2015 has so far raised a variety of opinions regarding the true reasons behind it, as well as what consequences it may bear for Russia. Since the...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series   “It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.”  Henry Kissinger     In December 1979, the Soviet Union launched a military intervention in Afghanistan, having responded to the calls from Taraki government. The Soviet leaders, whose main goal was to protect the loyal...

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