The dramatic breakdown of the Russian-Turkish partnership in the aftermath of the Su-24 incident had very dramatic consequences for the both sides, which now show first signs of their desire to break the ice. Mr. Orhan Gafarli, Azerbaijani political expert based in Ankara talked to us to give his perspective on the future of the relationships between Russia and Turkey and what wider implications they may...

Whatever the end of the quagmire in the Middle East will be, it can be confidently claimed that the Kurdish problem is now looming larger than ever in the regional politics. In Syria the YPG, armed groups under the local Kurdish party PYD, are among the most solid and reliable forces fighting against radical jihadists; in Iraq the prospects of possible independence exert a steady impact on national...

  Cooperation platforms such as Istanbul Process, Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework or International Contact Group on Afghanistan were viewed by international community as mechanisms for complementing military and security-related tasks and contributing to building stability and prosperity in Afghanistan ridden by recurrent violence for decades. Yet such platforms hitherto failed to produce...

It is common knowledge that more than two decades ago the European continent was mainly divided between two rival geopolitical blocs – “Western”, mostly the EU and the North-Atlantic club, and “Eastern”, dominated militarily and economically by the USSR. This Eastern Bloc occupied a geographical space spreading from the flatland of the Great East European Plain along the...

Russia’s military involvement in the Syrian arena has fueled debate among analysts, politicians and pundits etc. about the motives and strategic objectives of Russia that led the country to initiate military actions in Syrian Civil War. By its military intervention in Syria, Russia is focused on accomplishing a series of domestic and foreign policy interests. In the international arena, the country...

After the brutal bomb attack on March of 13 in the heart of Ankara that killed more than 30 people, president Erdoğan blamed Kurdish militants and PKK/PYD linked organizations in violence against Turkey and vowed to bring terror to “its knees”. While the latest deadly terrorist attacks both in Ankara and Istanbul raised questions about the Turkish government’s ability to protect its...

As Russian-Turkish relations become more strained in the aftermath of the Su-24 incident, both powers seek to demonstrate their muscles to each other. Given that more actors will be involved in this rumble regardless of their will, each belligerent side tries to be more attractive and earn more allies. The position of Azerbaijan, a tiny nation with huge oil and gas reserves sandwiched between Russia and...

Vladimir Putin entered Syria in an attempt to bolster his domestic popularity and demonstrate Russia's military adequacy- while also containing its rivals in the Middle East.   The Russian military operation in Syria launched at the end of September 2015 has so far raised a variety of opinions regarding the true reasons behind it, as well as what consequences it may bear for Russia. Since the...

  Kristijan Fidanovski, a Macedonian politics student at University College London, talks about current Macedonian-Greek relations, the debate around the Macedonian identity, and the Middle Eastern refugees stuck in Macedonia.   Interviewer: Rusif Huseynov     Huseynov: In December 2015, The Guardian spread information, according to which Macedonian Prime Minister is ready to end the...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series   “It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.”  Henry Kissinger     In December 1979, the Soviet Union launched a military intervention in Afghanistan, having responded to the calls from Taraki government. The Soviet leaders, whose main goal was to protect the loyal...

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