In July 1993, following the war over Nagorno-Karabagh, Turkey shut down its borders with Armenia as a gesture of sympathy for Azerbaijan. As a result of this disassociation, the Kars-Gyumri-Tbilisi railway—then the only link between Caucasus and Turkey—ceased its years-long operation. After closure of the Kars-Gyumri rail line, Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan launched considerations on how to...

The end of the Cold War, the disintegration of the USSR, the destruction of Yugoslavia just ended the ideological struggle leaving the new geostrategic and identity crash site. The battles that followed in the 1990s, especially from Serbia to the states and provinces of the former Yugoslavia, were the Nazi-style identity war by the Serbian regime, a sluggish aid from the then stale Russia for geostrategic...

In the shadowy world of covert proxy wars, Iran is taking centre stage, both as a target and a player. A series of incidents involving Iranian ethnic and religious minorities raise the spectre of the United States and Saudi Arabia seeking to destabilize the Islamic republic. Not to sit back passively, indications are that Iran beyond its support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, Lebanese Shiite militia...

According to the neorealism – one of the mainstream theories of international relations – power is divided into two parts – relational and structural. Relational power is the agregate potential of any state and its ability to dictate in international arena. The physical indicators of states – territory, population, national resources, military power, infrastructure, economy –...

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