In celebration of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (the SCO)’s 15th birthday, the organization finally decided to start the admission process for Pakistan and India  in June 2016. The “Memorandum of Obligations”, which consists of more than 30 sets of documents, has been officially signed by the Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers, urging the accession process of the two...

The book under review, Maritime Silk Road, was written by Li Qingxin in Chinese and translated into English by William W. Wang. In this book, Li Qingxin tries to portray the past glory of Chinese civilization, especially, in the maritime domain. It recognizes that current ventures in the Indian and Pacific Oceans undertaken by the People Republic of China (PRC) are not contemporary innovations, but are...

China is becoming as one of the most quoted countries among the political circles due to its rise as an economic, military, and political power in the world. Recent developments regarding China`s expansionist policies in the light of new political course of the United States raise many questions. Teemu Naarajärvi, PhD candidate of East Asian studies at the University of Helsinki, shares his views...

With Russia’s changing the balances in the Middle East following its active intervention in Syria in 2015, Moscow’s Kurdish policy has become one of the most debated issues. In order to understand this policy well and foresee the future of this relationship, it is necessary to mention some important facts from a historical perspective. The initial contact between the Russians and the Kurds...

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