In July 1993, following the war over Nagorno-Karabagh, Turkey shut down its borders with Armenia as a gesture of sympathy for Azerbaijan. As a result of this disassociation, the Kars-Gyumri-Tbilisi railway—then the only link between Caucasus and Turkey—ceased its years-long operation. After closure of the Kars-Gyumri rail line, Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan launched considerations on how to...

2nd Foreign Policy and Security Winter School, 14-18 March 2018, Istanbul/Turkey   Turkey is located at very critical geography. On one hand it is a NATO member and strategic partner of the USA. On the other hand, it is located in the neighborhood of the regional powers like Iran and Russia which both of them play extremely important role at the contemporary world politics. Furthermore, Turkey has...

The end of the Cold War, the disintegration of the USSR, the destruction of Yugoslavia just ended the ideological struggle leaving the new geostrategic and identity crash site. The battles that followed in the 1990s, especially from Serbia to the states and provinces of the former Yugoslavia, were the Nazi-style identity war by the Serbian regime, a sluggish aid from the then stale Russia for geostrategic...

In the shadowy world of covert proxy wars, Iran is taking centre stage, both as a target and a player. A series of incidents involving Iranian ethnic and religious minorities raise the spectre of the United States and Saudi Arabia seeking to destabilize the Islamic republic. Not to sit back passively, indications are that Iran beyond its support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, Lebanese Shiite militia...

According to the neorealism – one of the mainstream theories of international relations – power is divided into two parts – relational and structural. Relational power is the agregate potential of any state and its ability to dictate in international arena. The physical indicators of states – territory, population, national resources, military power, infrastructure, economy –...

People in Iraq's northern autonomous region of Kurdistan are voting in an independence referendum, amid rising tensions and international opposition on September 25, 2017. This referendum can produce a new state on the world map, in the most turbulent region of the planet. Heydar Mirza, expert in foreign policy and security studies, comments on the situation.    Interviewer: Elmira Hasanova...

Russia held a quadrennial military exercise called ‘Zapad’ in mid-September on the territory of Western Russia, Russian exclave Kaliningrad and Belarus. Current tensions with the West add up to the salience of the upcoming drills, which according to NATO allies, will be one of the largest since the Cold War. Although the risk of open confrontation is low, “Zapad-2017” can become the...

Foreign policy of a state is the consequences of actions and reactions and generally, three factors are mainly considerable to judge a state’s perception regarding its foreign policy. The first and foremost factor is relative power capabilities, while the second factor is political culture of foreign policy behavior and last but not least, it is the situation in which perception has been made that...

Quite unexpectedly, U.S. President Trump chose Poland for his first official visit to Europe, boosting the Polish authorities' self-esteem and triggering talks about the resuscitation of Washington's support to Eastern Europe's new democracies. We talked to Mr. Adam Reichardt, the Editor-in-Chief of New Eastern Europe, a Poland-based prominent geopolitical journal, about the geopolitical implications of...

It is quite symbolic that at the opening of EXPO-2017, the president of Kazakhstan sat in between the leaders of China and Russia, two neighboring states with great ambitions. The only difference is that Beijing still emphasizes its "soft power", while Moscow prefers "gunboat diplomacy" more.   Humanitarian investments The entire previous week in Kazakhstan was dedicated to China. Following the...

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