In 2005, 14-year-old Macedonia became the second EU candidate member from former Yugoslavia after Croatia. Having largely avoided the horrors of the Yugoslav Wars, led by the strongly pro-European SDSM party, and with a preamble on European integration in its very Constitution, Macedonia looked well-placed for swift EU accession. Yet, in 2016, the Macedonian case is unanimously viewed as one of the saddest...

The first article on Brexit can be read here.   In this second piece dedicated to Brexit, we will try to sketch what larger political consequences the referendum will bear for the European politics in case of both outcomes possible. Whatever the results, the EU will face a whole spectrum of new challenges after the vote, and will have to invent creative responces in order to avoid exacerbation of its...

On 23 June, the UK holds a referendum on whether to stay in the European Union or not, popularly dubbed as “Brexit”. Even before the referendum the unclearness on what to expect has been haunting Europe, while market analysts predict huge long-term costs for both Britain and the EU in case the country decides to leave. But what were the driving forces behind the very idea of the referendum, and...

GUAM: from setup to present situation In the light of the current events in East Europe, a new chance can emerge for the revival of GUAM, an organization established by Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova in 1997. The bloc that has started taking shape in the turn of the millennium The initial conceptual vision of GUAM primarily based on cooperation between the member states in creating a Euro-Asian...

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