The pursuit of developing indigenous defence-industrial capabilities often encounters with the need in sacrifices. As noted by Moravcsik, this involves an “autarky-efficiency dilemma”, in which relative autonomy can only be attained at the expense of production efficiency. (Moravcsik A., 1991) Governments tend to address this issue by adopting different strategies, which ultimately shape their...

“Every age has its own kind of war, its own limiting conditions, and its own peculiar preconceptions” Carl von Clausewitz, On War, 1976, p. 240.   The issues related to ‘hybrid warfare’ have dominated the recent news feeds, political and military scholarship and particularly international security agenda worldwide.  According to the Uppsala conflict data set, there were...

Introduction The Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), as a term, gained popularity among scholars and military circles in the early 1990s, when the Gulf war exposed a significant shift in the role of technological advancements in the modern warfare. Being characterized by innovations like all-weather precision weapons, the advent of stealth, the rise of unmanned systems, tactical and operational...

Pakistan is emerging as an important military player in the Gulf as it struggles to balance complex relations with regional rivals Saudi Arabia and Iran and diverging approaches by different branches of its government. Pakistan’s military engagement with the Gulf goes far beyond increased involvement in a Saudi-led, 41-nation military alliance that officially was established to counter terrorism, but...

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