Boko Haram in the West Africa Boko Haram promotes a version of Islam which makes it "haram", or forbidden, for Muslims to take part in any political or social activity associated with Western society. This includes voting in elections, wearing shirts and trousers or receiving a secular education. Boko Haram regards the Nigerian state as being run by non-believers, even when the country had a Muslim...

"In a system of states, the use of force generally discriminates between peace and war. Yet, international politics often takes place in a gray region involving no-peace and no-war, wherein the threat of violence – more than its mere application – is the critical variable for and understanding of interstate relations and crises.”1 The unique character of this variable makes it both a...

  Several days ago, a leader of the Taliban movement Mullah Akhtar Mansoor was killed in a U.S.-led drone strike in Pakistan, a year after he was appointed to the post. Ironically, his career did not last so long, even though during his reign, the Taliban fighters successfully carried out military operations against the government troops in southern part of Afghanistan. Moreover, the physical...

The April shootouts in Nagorno-Karabakh that took dozens of lives from each side signaled to the world community that the conflict around the above-mentioned region is not frozen, as it was previously claimed.   *          *          *   Ethnic clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis living in Nagorno-Karabakh1, a mountainous province inside...

It is common knowledge that more than two decades ago the European continent was mainly divided between two rival geopolitical blocs – “Western”, mostly the EU and the North-Atlantic club, and “Eastern”, dominated militarily and economically by the USSR. This Eastern Bloc occupied a geographical space spreading from the flatland of the Great East European Plain along the...

After the brutal bomb attack on March of 13 in the heart of Ankara that killed more than 30 people, president Erdoğan blamed Kurdish militants and PKK/PYD linked organizations in violence against Turkey and vowed to bring terror to “its knees”. While the latest deadly terrorist attacks both in Ankara and Istanbul raised questions about the Turkish government’s ability to protect its...

Vladimir Putin entered Syria in an attempt to bolster his domestic popularity and demonstrate Russia's military adequacy- while also containing its rivals in the Middle East.   The Russian military operation in Syria launched at the end of September 2015 has so far raised a variety of opinions regarding the true reasons behind it, as well as what consequences it may bear for Russia. Since the...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series   “It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.”  Henry Kissinger     In December 1979, the Soviet Union launched a military intervention in Afghanistan, having responded to the calls from Taraki government. The Soviet leaders, whose main goal was to protect the loyal...

The annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014 and the protests in Ukraine’s eastern region leading to separatist movements in Donetsk and Luhansk provinces deservedly caught the world’s attention. What began as pro-Russian protests has escalated into an armed conflict between the Russia-backed forces of the Donetsk and Luhansk Republics and Ukraine, giving rise to concerns over...

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