After the brutal bomb attack on March of 13 in the heart of Ankara that killed more than 30 people, president Erdoğan blamed Kurdish militants and PKK/PYD linked organizations in violence against Turkey and vowed to bring terror to “its knees”. While the latest deadly terrorist attacks both in Ankara and Istanbul raised questions about the Turkish government’s ability to protect its...

Vladimir Putin entered Syria in an attempt to bolster his domestic popularity and demonstrate Russia's military adequacy- while also containing its rivals in the Middle East.   The Russian military operation in Syria launched at the end of September 2015 has so far raised a variety of opinions regarding the true reasons behind it, as well as what consequences it may bear for Russia. Since the...

This article belongs to Pax Russica series   “It is not often that nations learn from the past, even rarer that they draw the correct conclusions from it.”  Henry Kissinger     In December 1979, the Soviet Union launched a military intervention in Afghanistan, having responded to the calls from Taraki government. The Soviet leaders, whose main goal was to protect the loyal...

The annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014 and the protests in Ukraine’s eastern region leading to separatist movements in Donetsk and Luhansk provinces deservedly caught the world’s attention. What began as pro-Russian protests has escalated into an armed conflict between the Russia-backed forces of the Donetsk and Luhansk Republics and Ukraine, giving rise to concerns over...

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