Russia held a quadrennial military exercise called ‘Zapad’ in mid-September on the territory of Western Russia, Russian exclave Kaliningrad and Belarus. Current tensions with the West add up to the salience of the upcoming drills, which according to NATO allies, will be one of the largest since the Cold War. Although the risk of open confrontation is low, “Zapad-2017” can become the...

On December 26, 1971, Pakistan finally decided to withdraw its forces from its former territories in Eastern Bengalia after the 9 months of a severe war that followed the declaration of independence of Bangladesh. A great contribution to the victory of the liberation movement was made by India, the regional superpower. But what considerations did Indian government take into account when it decided to use...

Introduction “States were sovereign and powerful, but, as the river commissions showed, they could sometimes sacrifice some of their sovereign prerogatives in order to facilitate the management of common problems.” (Klabbers, 2013 p.16) The European Union could be one of the best examples of such partnership in which states have pooled their sovereignty, in particular policy domains in order to...

Mikeil Saakashvili’s dramatic return to Ukraine has elicited numerous comments on social media, most of which regard his actions as a positive boost to his reputation and a negative impact on the presidency of Petro Poroshenko, who deprived him of his Ukrainian citizenship in July. But what will be its long-term results? And how should Ukraine’s president respond? From Ukraine’s...

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