Having possessed some of the world’s largest natural gas reserves, Turkmenistan is also one of few producer countries – and the only former Soviet republic – that is able to export more than half of its gas production, due to its small population (six times smaller than Uzbekistan’s, for instance) and relatively low level of industrialization. Its position in global energy market...

With Russia’s changing the balances in the Middle East following its active intervention in Syria in 2015, Moscow’s Kurdish policy has become one of the most debated issues. In order to understand this policy well and foresee the future of this relationship, it is necessary to mention some important facts from a historical perspective. The initial contact between the Russians and the Kurds...

I. Introduction  In the last decade we have witnessed one of the greatest economic crises  in the modern history, which provoked numerous disputes and proposals looking for the way how to better counteract its devastating consequences. Since 2007-2008, some of those have worked and some failed, but the underlying tune is clear: politics and economy are indivisibly connected. Namely, democracy as...

   The visit of the Georgian president to Minsk on March 2-3, 2017, can noticeably revive the topic of integration with the European Union of a group of post-Soviet countries participating in the "Eastern Partnership" project among which Belarus is also trying to be active. Today, both in Brussels and in other capitals there is notable pessimism regarding this unpromising project. However, there...

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