Enlightenment in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries caused a great number of cultural and intellectual changes in Europe; therefore, it is proper to say that “it changed not only ideas, but also the process by which ideas are formulated.” (Hause & Maltby, 2004, p. 291) This significant movement affected almost every aspect of European life: politics, religion, science, literature...

  A recent series of terrorist attacks in Kazakhstan shattered the entire region and led to speculations about the strengthening of radical elements in Central Asia. Mr. Aidar Amrebayev, a political expert from Kazakhstan, shares his opinion about what could await his country in the aftermath of terrorist attacks, in the light of fluctuating oil prices and Eurasian integration.   Interviewer:...

The July 29 announcement by Jabhat al-Nusra on severing affiliation ties with Al Qaeda and changing its name to Jabhat Fateh al-Sham came as a blessing for Qatar, which for a long time has tried to encourage the group of making such a move. Doha is interested in using the significant fighting capabilities of al-Nusra on the ground to pursue one of its foreign policy goals in the Middle East – the...

  Boko Haram in the West Africa Boko Haram promotes a version of Islam which makes it "haram", or forbidden, for Muslims to take part in any political or social activity associated with Western society. This includes voting in elections, wearing shirts and trousers or receiving a secular education. Boko Haram regards the Nigerian state as being run by non-believers, even when the country had a Muslim...

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