A book by one of the most eminent political theorists John Horton, “Political Obligation” seeks to define the political obligation theory with the help of author’s several notions. First published in 1992, the book has a revised, updated, and extended second edition, which provides valuable work to understand the problems of political obligation and pursued voluntarist, teleological,...

One of the problems in the Lebanese economy that we do not efficiently use our capacities. Our country, contrary to what some think, has many capabilities and capacities. I will lay out and explain three main capacities and capabilities in this article. 1. Strategic Geographic Location: Lebanon is located at the intersection of Europe, Asia, and Africa. This location can provide companies with an easy...

Mikeil Saakashvili’s dramatic return to Ukraine has elicited numerous comments on social media, most of which regard his actions as a positive boost to his reputation and a negative impact on the presidency of Petro Poroshenko, who deprived him of his Ukrainian citizenship in July. But what will be its long-term results? And how should Ukraine’s president respond? From Ukraine’s...

As I have noted in my first part of this series, the reform of Lebanon is tough but it is not impossible. Like the citizens, many Lebanese politicians want to change but simply don't know how to do it. After several months of researching how nations change, I have discovered major psychological principles that encompass all political change strategies. I will lay out these rules in this article.   1....

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