On December 26, 1971, Pakistan finally decided to withdraw its forces from its former territories in Eastern Bengalia after the 9 months of a severe war that followed the declaration of independence of Bangladesh. A great contribution to the victory of the liberation movement was made by India, the regional superpower. But what considerations did Indian government take into account when it decided to use...

At the beginning of this decade, Turkmenistan was enjoying the privileges of its position as an exporter in three different directions, which led the Turkmen government to rest assured of the benefits the Turkmen energy policies provided for the economy of the country. In the last couple of years, however, the conditions have changed drastically, as Turkmenistan has been increasingly dependent on a sole...

Several Belarusian newspapers have noted that August 9, 2017, is the 115th anniversary of the birth of Panteleimon Ponomarenko (1902-1984, a native of Krasnodar, Russia), the party leader of Belarus during the Stalinist repressions and war years. Ponomarenko has a mixed reputation but there seems to be a consensus that he was always not the hard-hearted stone-faced Stalinist of lore, but a man with the...

Abstract  Copenhagen School, as a part of critical security studies, developed in response to the traditional analysis of security. The School argued that issues are securitized, and become security issues through speech acts. The overall structure is called securitization process. However, the Copenhagen School’s analysis of security has been consistently criticized by alternative advocates of...

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