Having possessed some of the world’s largest natural gas reserves, Turkmenistan is also one of few producer countries – and the only former Soviet republic – that is able to export more than half of its gas production, due to its small population (six times smaller than Uzbekistan’s, for instance) and relatively low level of industrialization. Its position in global energy market...

I. Introduction  In the last decade we have witnessed one of the greatest economic crises  in the modern history, which provoked numerous disputes and proposals looking for the way how to better counteract its devastating consequences. Since 2007-2008, some of those have worked and some failed, but the underlying tune is clear: politics and economy are indivisibly connected. Namely, democracy as...

Anti-Americanism, whose initial roots go back to the 18th century, has been one of the major trends across the Middle East particularly after the 9/11 terror acts. Although anti-American sentiments in the Middle East first appeared in the aftermath of the American involvement into the region during the 1930s and 1940s, and intensified during the Cold War, anti-Americanism in the region culminated...

Azerbaijan’s foreign policy towards Russia has been mostly shaped by the historical and geographical factors connecting the two countries. The long-term Russian rule and influence in Azerbaijan have led the latter to be dependent on Russia in terms of governance, as well as educational, technological, and scientific development. When it comes to geography, Azerbaijan shares a 284-km length land...

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