In July 1993, following the war over Nagorno-Karabagh, Turkey shut down its borders with Armenia as a gesture of sympathy for Azerbaijan. As a result of this disassociation, the Kars-Gyumri-Tbilisi railway—then the only link between Caucasus and Turkey—ceased its years-long operation. After closure of the Kars-Gyumri rail line, Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan launched considerations on how to...

2nd Foreign Policy and Security Winter School, 14-18 March 2018, Istanbul/Turkey   Turkey is located at very critical geography. On one hand it is a NATO member and strategic partner of the USA. On the other hand, it is located in the neighborhood of the regional powers like Iran and Russia which both of them play extremely important role at the contemporary world politics. Furthermore, Turkey has...

The end of the Cold War, the disintegration of the USSR, the destruction of Yugoslavia just ended the ideological struggle leaving the new geostrategic and identity crash site. The battles that followed in the 1990s, especially from Serbia to the states and provinces of the former Yugoslavia, were the Nazi-style identity war by the Serbian regime, a sluggish aid from the then stale Russia for geostrategic...

In the shadowy world of covert proxy wars, Iran is taking centre stage, both as a target and a player. A series of incidents involving Iranian ethnic and religious minorities raise the spectre of the United States and Saudi Arabia seeking to destabilize the Islamic republic. Not to sit back passively, indications are that Iran beyond its support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, Lebanese Shiite militia...

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